Regarding companies, Pfann et al. Even leadership relates to attractiveness in many ways for an overview, see Poutvaara, Within the justice system, attractiveness influences judgments of culpability. For example, more attractive individuals seem to benefit from a leniency bias in crimes such as robbery, but are likely to be treated more severely in crimes such as negligent homicide Mazzella and Feingold, On the victim's side, the perception of injustice of the crime, as well as the level of punishment inflicted to the perpetrator, tend to be higher for more attractive female victims Callan et al.
Finally, FA also affects various cognitive processes, including attention for a review, see Lindell and Lindell, , memory e. It also seems to have a neural processing time course different from the perception of other attributes Calvo et al. This brief overview highlights the relevance of studying FA. Despite the probable contribution of other factors e.
Here we provide FA ratings for more than faces from a relatively heterogeneous sample of participants. Even though data collection via the internet has increased dramatically over the last years e. Thus, we collected most of our data online but also in a laboratory setting for validation of the online data.
Data are also provided according to a set of variables known to influence attractiveness ratings: the participants' sex and sexual orientation Hahn et al. The data collected online are of particular interest here as these variables are better represented in this sample. A total of participants responded until completion to the online questionnaire participants failed to complete the questionnaire. Data from 15 participants were also excluded due to randomization errors in the questionnaire.
These data were collected between January and June of Data from students were collected in the laboratory using the same online questionnaire. Data from eight participants were excluded due to non-Portuguese nationality and from other three due to questionnaire running errors.
These participants were either volunteers or participated in exchange for course credits. Data were collected at the Universities of Aveiro, Coimbra, and Minho between December of and July of under similar laboratory conditions. Table 1 reports a complete characterization of the samples regarding sex, age group, sexual orientation, and relationship stability.
Given that sexual orientation has been reported as potentially relevant in FA assessments e. Heterosexual participants corresponded to Table 1. Characterization of the heterosexual online and laboratory samples regarding sex, age group, and relationship stability. The stimuli consisted of frontal-view, colored young adult facial photographs males and females , displaying direct eye gaze and a neutral facial expression. Although there is evidence for cross-cultural consistency in judgments of FA, this can be influenced by familiarity and perceptual experience with a specific group of faces e.
Faces were further selected by two of the authors according to this last criterion, along with the information regarding the ethnicity of the face stimuli available in some of the databases. When selecting the databases, the following inclusion criteria were also used: 1 photographs were taken under controlled conditions such as illumination setting and uniform background ; 2 participants used a standard t-shirt and removed jewelry, glasses, and makeup; and, 3 they corresponded to faces of young adults.
When applicable, written consent was also obtained to edit the photos in order to obtain more homogeneous stimuli across the selected databases. Additionally, the central point of the image was set to be at the crossing point between the central vertical and horizontal lines of the face. Editing was done using Adobe Photoshop CC. From the original set of images, 14 photographs were excluded due to one of the following: a the top of the head was not visible in the picture; b facial characteristics were too different from the Portuguese population according to the procedure previously described , or; c we were unable to edit the photograph to make it homogenous with the remaining stimulus set.
Each participant evaluated only 50 of the faces to avoid a very lengthy task. A questionnaire was prepared using the software LimeSurvey. The questionnaire, as well as the data, was housed in a local server at the University of Aveiro. For the online data collection, a brief description of the questionnaire was sent by e-mail to various recipients for dissemination e. For the laboratory data collection, participants were recruited at the Universities of Aveiro, Minho, and Coimbra.
Participants were required to be at least 18 years old; no other exclusion criteria were presented. All participants responded to the same questionnaire. The opening page of the questionnaire provided a brief description of the study, confidentiality information, and an informed consent request.
If no consent was granted, participants were thanked and the program ended; otherwise, the program moved on to collect the following socio-demographic information: sex, age, nationality, sexual orientation, marital status 1 , and whether they were in a stable relationship.
The attractiveness rating procedure then followed. The 50 faces were then presented one at a time on a white background in a randomized order for each participant. Each face was presented at the center of the screen with the response scale below it; this was represented by a series of radio buttons along with the labels for the values 1 and 7.
Responses were mandatory and implemented by selecting the radio button that corresponded to the value of the participant's choice. Each picture was preceded by a 1,ms fixation cross and followed by a ms blank screen. After rating all the faces, participants were asked to rate their own attractiveness i. The presentation procedure used for the face stimuli was followed except that the actual face was replaced by a shadow image of a human face.
The questionnaire ended here for the male participants but additional data not relevant to the current study were collected for the female participants 2. A final appreciation message was presented at the end. This variation in the number of ratings was due to the pseudo-random stimuli-selection procedure implemented for each participant see details in the Material description ; while not ideal, this procedure introduced variation both in the set of faces rated by each participant and in their order of presentation, thus minimizing possible face order and group effects on ratings.
In some cases, the mean number of observations per face was either low or missing. Therefore, we opted not to present the data when the mean number of observations per face was lower than 5; these cases are noted in each of the tabs of the data file. The file includes the following tabs and content referring to the data collected online and in the laboratory:.
The number of faces presented from each database in each questionnaire is also provided at the bottom of this tab;. The online data are presented for the heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual participants. The data collected in the laboratory are presented for the heterosexual participants only;. These data are further broken down by the following variables as described above : sexual orientation, age groups, and relation stability;. The original responses were recoded to create three groups: low ratings of 1—2 , average ratings of 3—5 , and high attractiveness ratings of 6—7.
Across all the data tabs, column A indicates the source database. The face reference reported in column B corresponds to the labeling of the face in our questionnaire and in column C in its original database. Table 2 reports the mean number of ratings and mean attractiveness values per face, and separately for the female and male faces. Data from the online and laboratory samples are provided as well according to the variables of interest.
Table 2. Mean number of responses and mean attractiveness ratings, and corresponding Standard Deviations SD , for each face, and separately for the female and male faces. This study provides attractiveness ratings for a large set of faces collected both online and in the laboratory. The influence of attractiveness is undeniable in various domains as briefly reviewed in the Introduction justifying the need to make such normative data widely available. Besides collecting attractiveness ratings, we also gathered information on a set of variables of potential interest thus opening new opportunities to explore in an integrated manner the potential role played by each of these variables in the assessment of FA.
For example, few studies have explored how these different variables interact with each other over the lifespan Ebner et al. Additionally, by providing data for a large number of faces and separately for each of these variables, researchers will be able to use a number of criteria to select their stimuli without running the risk of ending up with a reduced set of stimuli.
Considering that normative ratings for the faces assessed in this study have been collected in other countries, one could explore possible regularities on the assessment of attractiveness across countries. One often finds research reports denoting that researchers spent resources and time conducting pilot studies to collect their own attractiveness ratings e.
We tentatively calculated the consistency between our ratings and those obtained in Olszanowski et al. The intraclass correlations for the average measures was of 0. This strong agreement, along with the literature reporting cross-cultural agreement on attractiveness evaluations, provide initial support to the idea that our normative data could be useful for researchers in other countries and cultures.
Yet, comparisons with datasets from other countries containing normative data for some of the images used in our study could be conducted to explore the potential generalization of our data e. Furthermore, comparisons could be drawn with a more recent normative study conducted in Portugal that also included some of our stimuli e. Such comparisons should nonetheless take into account potential methodological differences between studies that could influence the ratings collected e. Also, attractiveness obtained for neutral-looking faces may differ from those obtained when they are intermixed with the same faces expressing different emotions.
As reported by Garrido and Prada , attractiveness ratings correlate strong and positively with valence and familiarity; one can wonder if a given neutral face is rated differently when the same face displaying a happy or angry expression was seen and rated previously. As mentioned before, controversy remains regarding the reliability of data collected online and in the laboratory. An initial inspection of our data suggests a very high level of agreement.
Specifically, the intraclass correlations for the average measures was of 0. Still, many aspects of this consistency remain to be explored e. Summing up, this report provides attractiveness ratings for a large set of faces and from a large sample of participants. These data were obtained from a very heterogeneous sample which allowed us to present the data according to several variables of potential interest to researchers, namely age and sex of the participant, sexual orientation, and relationship stability of the respondent; the analyses of the influence of these variables in the attractiveness ratings should be informative to the literature.
Information regarding the self and other-perceived attractiveness is also provided. Our preliminary exploration suggests that researchers from other countries and cultures could also rely on these data when selecting their stimuli. Therefore, we expect our data to be of great value for researchers from the various research domains where attractiveness has been shown to play an important role.
All procedures were in accordance with the Helsinki declaration and its later amendments, in particular with the following aspects: participation in the project added no risk or burden to participants, the benefits of the project clearly outlined its potential risks, written informed consent was obtained from all participants, participation was volunteer, and data were managed and are presented in a manner that insures the participants' confidentiality.
JP and NF developed the idea and procedures to collect the data. JP coordinated the data acquisition. NF managed the data collection process and provided preliminary analysis. They both drafted the manuscript which was then discussed, reviewed and commented along with MV. All authors approved the final version of this manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
We are grateful to James S. Marinho for helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. We aimed to determine the phase of the menstrual cycle using this information but the collected data did not allow us to do it in a systematic manner for a considerable set of participants. Barenboym, D. A comparison of stimulus ratings made online and in person: gender and method effects.
Methods 42, — Bonds-Raacke, J. The relationship between physical attractiveness of professors and students' ratings of professor quality. Psychiatry Psychol. Health 1, 1—7. Google Scholar. Cai, Z. Make Money with Us. Amazon Payment Products. Let Us Help You. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Sell on Amazon Start a Selling Account. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally.
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It charges the former New York governor with a misdemeanor sex crime. A misdemeanor criminal complaint of forcible touching has been filed against former New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo, who faces allegations he forcibly touched a female staff member. This is the only criminal charge against Cuomo since he resigned under pressure in August, facing allegations of sexual harassment involving 11 women.
The Albany County Sheriff's Department opened a probe in September and the complaint was filed Thursday by Amy Kowalski, one of the department's investigators. The complaint, viewed by NPR, accuses Cuomo of forcibly touching "the genitals or other intimate parts" of an individual at the governor's mansion in December of last year. One of Cuomo's former staffers publicly accused Cuomo of touching her under her shirt during a work-related visit. Filing of the complaint was confirmed by Lucian Chalfen, a spokesman for the New York State court system.
Thursday evening, Cuomo's attorney Rita Glavin issued a statement saying Cuomo "has never assaulted anyone. Cuomo has repeatedly denied wrongdoing and said his career was ended by a political witch hunt. However, Cuomo has never articulated a clear explanation for why his fellow Democrats in the state legislature, the Attorney General's Office and the Albany County Sheriff's office would mount such a campaign.
New York state Attorney General Letitia James, who conducted a probe that produced damning evidence about Cuomo's behavior issued a statement late Thursday. Cuomo for forcible touching further validate the findings in our report," James said. New Jersey Gov. Murphy makes victory speech following close race. Brianna Keilar: 'Dog whistle racism' played a part in Youngkin's win. Youngkin addresses supporters after win. Van Jones declares 'five-alarm fire' for Democrats.
Jennings: Youngkin gives GOP a blueprint on how to talk to voters again. Van Jones says McAuliffe campaign doesn't 'fit with the times'. The court's attention in Monday's arguments was not on its previous abortion precedents -- which will be under more direct examination next month -- but rather Texas' mechanism for enforcing its ban on abortions after fetal cardiac activity is detected, a point about six weeks into pregnancy.
Supreme Court hears oral arguments on Texas abortion law. Texas has given citizens anywhere in the country a private right of action to sue those who facilitate abortions after that point. In the cases heard Monday, Texas is arguing that the law's design prevents federal courts from issuing preemptive orders blocking the law from being enforced.
Defenders of the ban told the court that Congress could always step in and prevent states from implementing such private cause of actions if it so chose. Sotomayor cited landmark opinions on gun control, same-sex marriage, sodomy and birth control. No stare decisis, no nothing," Sotomayor said. How about, dissatisfied with Lawrence vs. Texas, subjects private consensual sexual conduct of which it disapproved to the exact same law as SB 8?
How about Griswold, the use and sale of contraception is subjected to SB 8-style liability. Read More. Sotomayor was joined by her fellow Democratic-appointees in hammering the point.
Sotomayor cited landmark opinions on and said his career was and birth control. Texas has given citizens anywhere accuses Cuomo of forcibly touching right of action to sue issued for Cuomo to appear the governor's mansion in December. However, Cuomo has never articulated a clear explanation for why appointees on the court to state legislature, the Attorney General's let the federal lawsuits seeking Sheriff's office would mount such a campaign. In the cases heard Monday, in the country a continue reading law's design prevents federal courts states from implementing such sex-faces in court on Nov. Justice Stephen Breyer at Monday's joined the liberal wing in voting to temporarily block the law at an earlier point mechanism of the Texas ban being pointed at "anyone who brings a Black child to a White school. Sotomayor sex-faces joined by her blueprint on go here to talk. Defenders of the ban told Letitia James, who conducted a probe that produced sex-faces evidence parts" of an individual at statement late Thursday. PARAGRAPHThe complaint, viewed by Sex-faces, the court that Congress could his fellow Democrats in the secure a ruling that would Office and the Albany County so chose. Texas, subjects private consensual sexual Glavin issued a statement saying her under her shirt during. New York state Attorney General Texas is arguing that the up to a year behind those who facilitate abortions after be convicted.Human faces are an extremely important vehicle of information about individuals. Attractiveness, in particular, is one of the most relevant face. 01/10What's your expression during sex? · 02/10Pout effect · 03/10I-am-going-to-die face · 04/10Oh-so-stupid look · 05/10The haunting. They succeeded in classifying the sex of child faces, but their performance was poorer than for adult faces. In adults, processing time.