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As there were no questions for the officers the Chair asked the applicants to present their case. Mr Martin Rangecroft , Solicitor for Wapping Supermarket, commented that the application was in effect for a 24 hour licence to serve off sales alcohol.
There would be CCTV inside and outside the premise which should deter any crime and disorder and anti social behaviour. It should be noted that the Police had not objected to the application and were therefore satisfied that the application met the crime and disorder licensing objective. The applicants were experienced with a good history and would not allow people to congregate outside the premise or for alcohol to be consumed in the immediate vicinity.
If there were any problems then the Police would be contacted. Routine ID checks would be carried out on customers with signage in the premise stating that alcohol would not be sold to anyone under age. Deliveries to the premise would be via Wapping Lane so should not affect congestion in the area. Times for deliveries would be agreed with the Council.
Mr Stavros Martis stated that granting a licence to sell alcohol non stop was excessive and expressed concerns that this would cause anti social behaviour in the area. He considered that the applicants would not be able to stop people drinking in the area or hanging around outside the building where he lived.
There was already a lot of alcohol consumption in the area leading to problems of broken beer bottles on pavements. He was not against alcohol being sold in the premise but the hours being applied for. In response to questions from Members the applicants commented that they had not contacted the objectors as they only received their names and addresses the previous week.
ISME J ; 10 : — Google Scholar. The Kdp-ATPase system and its regulation. J Biosci ; 32 : — Rippling is a predatory behavior in Myxococcus xanthus. J Bacteriol ; : — Uropathogenic Escherichia coli releases extracellular vesicles that are associated with RNA. PLoS One ; 11 : e Divergence of functional effects among bacterial sRNA paralogs.
BMC Evol Biol ; 17 : The functional RNA cargo of bacterial membrane vesicles. DOI: Predatory activity of Myxococcus xanthus outer-membrane vesicles and properties of their hydrolase cargo. Microbiology ; : — Fontes M , Kaiser D. Myxococcus cells respond to elastic forces in their substrate.
Proc Natl Acad Sci ; 96 : — 7. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli. MicrobiologyOpen ; 4 : — Transcriptomic profiling of interacting nasal staphylococci species reveals global changes in gene and non-coding RNA expression. A global transcriptional switch between the attack and growth forms of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. PLoS One ; 8 : — Transcriptional changes when Myxococcus xanthus preys on Escherichia coli suggest myxobacterial predators are constitutively toxic but regulate their feeding.
Microb Genom ; 4. Myxobacteria are able to prey broadly upon clinically-relevant pathogens, exhibiting a prey range which cannot be explained by phylogeny. Front Microbiol ; 8 : The Myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus can sense and respond to the quorum signals secreted by potential prey organisms. Comparative analysis of Myxococcus predation on soil bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol ; 76 : — 7. Identification of functions affecting predator-prey interactions between Myxococcus xanthus and Bacillus subtilis.
Myxobacteria: moving, killing, feeding, and surviving together. Front Microbiol ; 7 : Spatial structure, cooperation and competition in biofilms. Nat Rev Micro ; 14 : — P2CS: updates of the prokaryotic two-component systems database. Nucleic Acids Res ; 43 : D — Rhizobial galactoglucan determines the predatory pattern of Myxococcus xanthus and protects Sinorhizobium meliloti from predation. Environ Microbiol ; 16 : — Bacterial predation: 75 years and counting!
Environ Microbiol , ; 18 : pp. Mutations affecting predation ability of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Membrane vesicle-mediated release of bacterial RNA. Sci Rep ; 5 : Sudo S , Dworkin M. Bacteriolytic enzymes produced by Myxococcus xanthus. Tarnita CE. The ecology and evolution of social behavior in microbes. J Exp Biol ; : 18 — The outcome of H. Int J Med Microbiol ; : — Genomic insights into an obligate epibiotic bacterial predator: Micavibrio aeruginosavorus ARL BMC Genomics ; 12 : Myxobacterial two-component systems.
In: Whitworth DE ed. Myxobacteria: Multicellularity and Differentiation. Google Preview. Whitworth DE. Myxobacterial vesicles death at a distance? Adv Appl Microbiol ; 75 : 1 — Two-component regulatory systems in prokaryotes. In: Filloux A ed. Bacterial Regulatory Networks. Genome-wide analysis of myxobacterial two-component systems: genome relatedness and evolutionary changes.
BMC Genomics ; 16 : Composition of distinct sub-proteomes in Myxococcus xanthus : metabolic cost and amino acid availability. Amino Acids ; 47 : — Antibiotic production by myxobacteria plays a role in predation. Adaptive evolution of an sRNA that controls Myxococcus development. Science ; : Spontaneous reversions of an evolutionary trait loss reveal regulators of a small RNA that controls multicellular development in myxobacteria.
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
A chicken can beat a human in tic-tac-toe. A chicken almost always beats a human in tic-tac-toe. I learned this fact in high school when my friend Rob got obsessed with one particular tic-tac-toe-playing chicken named Willie who lived at the video arcade at Mott Street. And Willie beat Rob over and over and over again at tic-tac-toe.
Willie wasn't unique. Birds like him were once a pretty common carnival attraction. And these chickens were so good at tic-tac-toe that humans were getting demoralized. At least one distributor started having the birds lose on purpose every fifth game to make it seem more fair. There, a pair of scientists Marian and Keller Breeland had built a business out of training up strange animal behaviors. Their zoo was like a product showroom, a place to demo the ducks they'd taught to play piano, or rabbits that drove around in little fire trucks, or hamsters on trapeze.
But the Breelands The Breelands' most popular and enduring act was the Bird Brain, a chicken in a box which disappeared behind a screen to peck Os onto a game board. Chinatown Willie was one of those, or maybe someone else's knock off. In any case, I watched that chicken play a lot of tic-tac-toe.
Peering over Rob shoulder, I tried to figure out the chicken's secret strategy. But then last week, really last week, I discovered that all those observations were for naught. As I got ready for tonight's talk, I stumbled across a copy of an old instruction manual which the Breelands would send out with their Bird Brain units. And according to that manual, the chicken in the box wasn't really playing tic-tac-toe at all.
In fact, behind the screen there was nothing but a single light bulb and a switch. When the light went on, the chicken pecked and an O appeared somewhere on the board in a spot chosen by computer. I found this kind of devastating. Partly because I promised Pat a talk on the intelligence of chickens. Chickens are kind of dumb. As we've seen, they're even dumb compared to other birds. They don't have funerals.
You know, they're not -- or make tools like crows. They don't learn to speak like parrots. In fact, if a chicken has any special talent at all it's that when you chop off its head it can go on acting like a chicken for days or weeks or even months. But still, I think there's something amazing about Willie and the other bird brains. It's not that these chickens were smart enough to beat us at tic-tac-toe, because they weren't.
It's that we humans were dumb enough to lose. If you can think ahead just a bit, you ought to be able to play any round of tic-tac-toe to a draw even against a computer. And yet it seems we humans can't or won't succeed even at this very modest test of our intelligence.
And I think that's useful to remember especially tonight, because this whole project to rank species according to their smarts takes it as a given that a gulf exists between the very dumbest and the very smartest animals. That the chicken and the chimpanzee or the sperm whale or the crow live on separate continents of cognition.
But I call that vanity. That's what Willie taught us, that there we were standing in the same arcade befuddled by the same computer, each unable to succeed at the same simple game. We were joined together across several hundred million years of evolution by what we couldn't do. Judges, a vote for chicken is a vote for finding that common ground. It's a vote for unity and kinship. A vote for chickens is a vote for all of us. Thank you. This is dumb together or heartfelt together.
PAT: At this point, Macy had curled up into a ball, kind of taking a back seat on judging. I mean, if we were better humans, we would have the kind of antenna and radar that a great actress would have, where you can just somehow project and return. You go to a movie, like, with her and you go, you know, every move she makes, like, touches you. Oh, I can't -- I can't. I am enthralled by this. JAD: Is -- isn't all emotion somehow -- it's a physical JAD: So is it a question of degrees?
That somehow they are experiencing that much -- or is it an entirely different kind of intelligence, would you think? So they have everything we have, right? Like, their friend can go up and clap them on the back or give them a sperm whale hug or whatever, right? Like, they still have that, and they also have language.
But then they have this other thing which to me, just because I avoid my inbox or whatever, it feels like some form of email, right? Like, you send it at a great distance, but it's emotional and you pick it up with your face. JAD: I -- you know what? I think I gotta -- my heart goes sperm whale. As a political platform, I vote chicken. But as -- my heart says I gotta go for the sperm whale.
PAT: That's three. A sweep. Wow, okay! Tough break, Dan. PAT: So at this point, the first round was finished. The judges had weighed in on some pretty compelling cases for the crow, the slime mold, the sperm whale and the chicken. Next up, we had another round of competition. Same basic idea. We asked our four contestants to bring a smart animal to the table to make a case for, but this time we threw a couple curveballs at them.
That, and the final crowning of the world's smartest animal after a quick break. Radiolab is supported in part by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, enhancing public understanding of science and technology in the modern world. More information about Sloan at www. PAT: So in part one of our competition, we heard arguments for the intelligence of the crow, the slime mold, the sperm whale, and the chicken. And in part two, we decided to raise the stakes a little, give our competitors a couple more challenges.
PAT: The first challenge is that they are now going to have to compete with their nemesis from the first round. So we're gonna team them up and we're gonna have a round of two-on-two round. And the other challenge we gave them is we noticed that we weren't really paying that much attention to the furry mammals. I think a lot of us imagine that we may be among the smartest animals in the -- in the animal kingdom. And some of us won't, yeah.
And so -- but we decided let's do some furry mammals, but -- but the challenge was not to do any of the usual suspects. So no humans, of course. No chimpanzees, no elephants, no dogs. Sorry, Macy. Come up with an unexpectedly smart furry mammal with your -- with your new former enemy teammate. PAT: First up were Dan and Laurel, who had absolutely no trouble at all agreeing on a smart furry mammal. Been showing us how to live in cities for a really long time.
I don't even -- why are we talking about this? PAT: I know it's a no-brainer. Alright, take it away. The column underneath described a Mr. Golepard who'd been traveling from town to town in a double-decker covered wagon beneath a family of trained raccoons that worked for them as chimney sweeps. It was not the only story of its kind. In those years, raccoons were often touted by reporters for their high intelligence or their sagacity or their skill at making mischief.
This is the odd and tragic story of how we came to understand briefly a century ago, that raccoons were among the very shrewdest animals of all. And then we forgot. At Columbia University, Edward Thorndike had been testing the intelligence of cats and dogs by locking them in boxes. This was Houdini in the lab. An escape room, but for animals. Then in , a psychologist in Oklahoma named Lawrence Wistor Cole thought to put raccoons through those same puzzle boxes to learn, as he put it, their proper place in the scale of mammalian intelligence.
And he found some amazing things. His raccoons, Tom, Jim, Jack and Dolly, would at times break free of the puzzle box and then ignore the food reward. Cole also found that his raccoons, unlike cats, could learn to escape a given box just by watching humans do it.
And based on this and other work, a soft consensus came together in psychology that raccoons were in fact quite high on the scale of mammalian intelligence, much higher than a cat or a dog at any rate, and maybe even on a par with primates. But alas, this whole idea was soon to be challenged and erased. In the same year Cole published his research, the president, Teddy Roosevelt lashed out against the tendency of nature writers to ascribe human-like abilities to raccoons and other animals.
The president, who was an avid outdoorsman, called this fake news. For one thing, the raccoons they meant to study kept escaping. In place of Tom and Jim and Jack and Dolly there were rats. Nameless rats. So raccoons vanished from the lab and then as cities grew, they vanished from our lives.
Out of sight, and for awhile out of mind. But, turns out as people moved out of the country and into the cities the raccoons followed us. And our urban spaces aren't just the perfect place for raccoons to demonstrate their intelligence, but I argue that they are also making them even smarter. Today though, the people that know the most about urban raccoons are the people whose job it is to get them out of our urban spaces.
Like, Mr. He told me that the animals are bold and curious and they eat pretty much everything. Raccoons move into our attics and our crawl spaces. They study us. They use their tiny, sensitive hands to manipulate locks and latches, or pry out loose nails. They gnaw things open and then they take running leaps also to knock things over. A raccoon will work on a problem like lifting up a garage door or prying open a window or prying a vent cover off of a basement for hours until they figure it out.
Sometimes they'll come back, like, night after night to work on the problem until they solve it. And once they do, they keep coming back. Raccoon told me that once he got a call every night from the same neighborhood for, like, two weeks because one ambitious raccoon figured out they were all tract homes, and so what would work to get into one of these tract houses would work in the entire neighborhood.
So she just went house to house to house to house. So raccoons are really one of the only animal species to fare better as humans spread all over the planet. Not only that, but we are each problems for each other. They try to outsmart us, we try to outsmart them. It's unclear to me which of us is getting more intelligent faster. PAT: And agreeing on an animal was a little bit harder than they expected. PAT: Tracy kicked it off for team marsupial with this adorable little creature called the quokka, which looks sort of like a chubby squirrel with these teddy bear eyes and little black gloves.
If you're sitting in a chair, hold on to the -- hold on to your butts. Sam Jackson. I thought that the response would be, "Okay. Are you ready? Judges, are you ready? She's into it. Here's why the quokka is the smartest animal. Serious business. When approached by the predator Okay, when approached by a predator, a parent quokka -- I don't know if it's the dad, the mom, the -- you know, pronouns.
I don't know their lives. Approached by a predator, if a parent is with their child, they will throw the child at the predator to distract it while it runs away. So I need to describe this image for the people who cannot see it. PAT: So at this point, Tracy had an illustration up on the screen of a mom tossing a baby into a basketball hoop.
That's what quokkas do, you know? And I think that this is really smart, because you could make another one. You could make two or three, you know? If the both of y'all die because -- because you're that attached to your child, then what happens to your genetic line? It doesn't get passed on, right? This way quokka was like, "Oh, shit. I like Emily, but I can make another -- I can make Emily the second.
Emily Two. And that's that. The quokka goes on to live another day. The quokka goes on to survive longer than anyone else will. It's your turn if you still wanna go. So this is supposed to be a presentation about, like, what the smartest animal is. And a long time ago I was like, yeah, I'm gonna do koalas. But then I looked it up, and apparently koalas are famously stupid. Their brains only take two percent of their body mass, which is apparently one of the smallest brain-to-body mass ratios of any mammal.
Koala's brains are also super smooth, which is bad because the more folds your brain has, the smarter you are. The human brain is like Marie Kondo. Lots of folding. Shout out to my Kondoheads out there. Spark and joy. You know who you are. Guys, koalas are so dumb, they even sound dumb. Listen to this. Just like how choosing koalas for this presentation wasn't conventionally intelligent. Perhaps koalas are like how my mom describes me, "smart in their own special way.
Imagine only being awake for the amount of hours you need to eat and have sex. I mean, I'm not a huge fan of sex because I'm quote-unquote "awful" at it. But boy, do I love eating. The human schedule on the other hand is horrendous. We sleep on average 6. We wake from our nightmares, then spend 10 hours reading emails and worrying, five hours on a conference call, and two hours eating dinner out of a big bowl while watching Billions and hoping to God that Paul Giamatti's voice can lull us to sleep again.
In conclusion, koalas have optimized themselves for life's greatest gifts: eating, having sex -- for those who enjoy that kind of thing -- and sleeping without the need to listen to Paul Giamatti's voice. And that's smart. Now who sounds stupid? Still koalas. I realized I clapped with everyone else, but you know what?
I am proud of myself. PAT: Wow, okay. So we've heard from both pairs, raccoons and marsupials-slash-quokka and dumb-slash-smart koala. JAD: There's a lot to take in there. A lot of different arguments were put forward. I think I got to give this to the marsupial duet.
This was good! PAT: Oh, what is this? What's happening here? Laurel Braitman has walked a giant bone across the stage and given it to Macy the dog judge. What do you call it? PAT: So to keep things fair, we decided to just throw the whole thing over to the audience. To vote with their applause for their take on the smartest animal of the evening.
So just to recap, the contenders were the crow, the slime mold, the sperm whale, the chicken, the raccoon, and the marsupials. And the winner according to the audience was PAT: Drum roll, please. Ah, we're gonna do it here. I think the winner of the contest, the smartest animal in the world is the sperm whale.
The crown goes to Laurel Braitman! We had a prize somewhere. I don't know who out here from our team has it. There's a prize. We had -- we had planned to give a goldfish to the winner. And instead, we have a red fish, a beta fish for -- for our winner Laurel Braitman.
One more time for Laurel Braitman winning our competition! PAT: She -- she flew here from California with the -- with the leg of an animal, and now she's flying back with a small fish. We just don't -- we just don't care about that, right? PAT: Okay, that's -- that's our show everyone. Thank you to everyone. Please give it up. I have some thank-yous. Take a bow. Tonight's show and all our reporting on the intelligence series that's starting to come out next Thursday has been supported by Science Sandbox, a Simons Foundation initiative dedicated to engaging everyone with the process of science.
We're very grateful to Simons. And additional support for Radiolab is provided by the Alfred P. And most of all, thank you all for coming out. We can't do this without you. Thank you for coming in the rain, and have a great night. Radiolab is created by Jad Abumrad and is produced by Soren Wheeler. Dylan Keefe is our Director of Sound Design. Suzie Lechtenberg is our Executive Producer. With help from Shima Oliaee, W. Our fact checker is Michelle Harris.
NYPR Network. Listen For Free Support Us. Deborah Lee Summary Transcript. PAT: Animal intelligence. PAT: Jad? PAT: Mm-hmm. PAT: Y'all ready to meet our contestants? So we have the crow. PAT: So first round: crow versus slime mold. PAT: We're gonna start with Tracy. PAT: Ready? PAT: Go. PAT: Oh my God!
There it is. JAD: That's a real crow video? PAT: You can say whatever. PAT: Uh, it's actually two and a half years. PAT: All right. PAT: What a supportive enemy. JAD: Wow! PAT: Crow versus slime mold. PAT: Again, two and a half years. PAT: Wow. Very impressive. JAD: What's she saying? Well, she did study them once. PAT: Do you speak dog, Robert? I can't speak it. PAT: I see. PAT: Macy? PAT: What do we have for Macy? PAT: Crow. PAT: The sperm whale. PAT: The chicken. JAD: Whoa!
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